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What data would we need to collect in the field to determine the bankfull

What data would we need to collect in the field to determine the bankfull discharge of a river using the Manning equation? How could we determine the Manning roughness

What data would we need to collect in the field to determine the bankfull discharge

Bankfull stage is the water depth at which a stream completely fills its channel (to the top of the banks) and begins to overflow onto its floodplain.

Many researchers feel that bankfull flows are the critical flows in determining character
and geometry of the stream channel.

Others have argued (perhaps less convincingly) that due to their relatively high
magnitude and frequency, bankfull flows may be responsible for accomplishing the largest amount of geomorphic work (bank erosion, sediment transport, etc.).

The size of the bankfull channel of a river is important because it
scales the balance of reach-scale erosion and deposition with the longer-term flow regime and sediment flux.

Rivers will tend to adjust towards an equilibrium condition, wherein the scale of the channel topography and the size of bed sediments are able to convey recurrent bankfull-level floods.

What data would we need to collect in the field to determine the bankfull discharge of a river using the Manning equation?

How could we determine the Manning roughness coefficient for modern stream flow? What data would we need to collect to do this?

From an environmental standpoint, why are some streams more sensitive to environmental impact than others?

In addition, if you worked for a consulting firm and were asked by a client to evaluate the impact of real estate development on a local drainage basin, what would you look for? How would you design your study?

Describe how urbanization (constructing cities with buildings, parking lots, etc.) affects the frequency of large flooding events.

Explain in your own words, how a stream transport and deposits sediments. Make sure that you include all appropriate equations and terms.

Lastly, state Darcy’s law and explain the core sample method. (Hint: A drawing may be a useful way to present the variables used in Darcy’s law.)

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