Classy Writers

Classical Writers

The Ethical Challenges of Technology

THIS IS THE INSTRUCTORS FORMAT FOR THE PAPER Introduction The introduction is generally one paragraph in length, and is where you establish your thesis, or main argument. (The first paragraph of the paper) A thesis statement should be clear and concise, such that it provides the reader with an idea of what to expect from your paper and explains the significance of your subject (your purpose/objective). You may include general information about your topic in this section, but do not go overboard; your primary goal with the introduction is to intrigue, not inform. It may be helpful to write the introduction last, once you know how the rest of your paper will conclude. Body The body is where you present your research findings. There is no set length or structure for this section; some findings may merit a paragraph of discussion; others may require several pages for a clear explanation. This is considered the most important part of your research paper. A reader may forgive a sub-par introduction or conclusion, but an inaccurate or poorly written body is inexcusable. If your paper must meet a required length, resist the temptation to pad the text of your body with extraneous words; instead, include more research or write in greater depth about a particular argument. Parts of the body includes: Method, Results, and Discussion a. The Method This should be the easiest part of the paper to write, as it is a run-down of the exact design and methodology used to perform the research. Obviously, the exact methodology varies depending upon the exact field and type of experiment. There is a big methodological difference between the apparatus-based research of the physical sciences and the methods and observation methods of social sciences. However, the key is to ensure that another researcher should be able to replicate the experiment exactly, whilst keeping the section concise. You can assume that anybody reading your paper is familiar with all of the basic methods, so try not to explain every last detail. For example, an organic chemist or biochemist will be familiar with chromatography, so you only need to highlight the type of equipment and should not explain the process in detail. In the case of a survey, if you have too many questions to cover in the method, you can always include a copy of the questionnaire in the appendix. In this case, make sure that you refer to it. b. The Results This is probably the most variable part of any research paper and depends upon the results and aims of the experiment. For quantitative research, it is a presentation of the numerical results and data, whereas for qualitative research it should be a broader discussion of trends, without going into too much detail. For research generating many results, then it is better to include tables or graphs of the analyzed data and leave the raw data in the appendix, so that a researcher can follow up and check your calculations. A commentary is essential to linking the results together, rather than displaying isolated and unconnected charts, figures and findings. It can be quite difficult to find a good balance between the results and the discussion section, because some findings, especially in a quantitative or descriptive experiment, will fall into a grey area. As long as you not repeat yourself to often, then there should be no major problem. It is best to try to find a middle course, where you give a general overview of the data and then expand upon it in the discussion – you should try to keep your own opinions and interpretations out of the results section, saving that for the discussion. c. The Discussion This is where you elaborate upon your findings, and explain what you found, adding your own personal interpretations. Ideally, you should link the discussion back to the introduction, addressing each initial point individually. It is important to try to make sure that every piece of information in your discussion is directly related to the thesis statement, or you risk clouding your findings. You can expand upon the topic in the conclusion – remembering the hourglass principle. 1. Conclusion The conclusion is where you remind the reader of your thesis and briefly summarize how your findings lend validity to your argument. Tie the facts and arguments together but avoid going over the entirety of your research paper in this section. Focus on the highlights. Explain the value of your research and, if applicable, how it may be of benefit to the reader. 2. Bibliography The bibliography is where you list all your research sources. Bibliographies come in several formats and, depending on the audience or assignment, one may be preferred over others. In order to make writing this section relatively painless, keep careful track of your sources while you research. A proper bibliography gives the reader confidence in the quality and accuracy of your paper. (APA Reference Style Guide) 3. Originality Originality is the unofficial fifth part of a research paper. Take great care to avoid plagiarism in your writing and be sure that any text you pull from outside sources is properly quoted and noted in your bibliography. Resist the temptation to appear completely detached from your work. Allow your personal voice to guide the flow of your writing will make the final product more compelling to read. Pretend that you are engaged in a conversation with your reader; be formal, but enthusiastic. Anticipate potential arguments the reader may raise and respond appropriately.

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